Thursday, May 21, 2020

Examine the Main Characteristics of Conversion and...

A conversion is a religious experience that changes a persons beliefs from one religion to another, there are three types of conversion with characteristics varying among them. Mystical experience however is a more extreme form of experience, which is not just seeing hearing or feeling someone but a deeper union with god. Non-volitional is a non voluntary conversion which is forced on someone. This usually means that the person is hostile to the belief they later come to hold, as it is forced it is not sought after either. God is usually involved by a direct action such as a voice or lights, which results in the conversion being sudden. The scale of these conversions are massive as they are dramatic and spectacular due to the†¦show more content†¦This searching was carried out by Tolstoy himself without any intervening act by God, and was a gradual process which took many weeks. As Tolstoy searched within himself for the answer,it was a lesser change and happened on a low key scale including thoughts rather than sudden and dramatic lights and voices. The last type of conversion is self surrender and every conversion has an element of self surrender as in every conversion there has to be a tipping point where the person gives in to the belief they will become to believe otherwise it would not be a conversion. C.S.Lewis conversion centered massively around self surrender, as for months and months he rejected God who cam to him many nights with his beliefs. Over and over he rejected them beliefs until one night C.S.Lewis reached his tipping point and accepted God coming to him. He got to his knees and began to pray, he had finally accepted Gods beliefs and teachings, which resulted in his conversion. Mystical experience is on a deeper meaning then just feeling, seeing or hearing God. Mystical experience involves a union with God, in which you become one with Him. In the Upanishads this union with God is described as rivers flow to their rest in the ocean and there leave behind them name and form, so the knower liberated from name and form, reaches the divine Person beyond the beyond.Show MoreRelatedPersonal and/or Religious Experience Is Particularly Revealing for Developing a Fuller Understanding or Ourselves and/God? (50))2438 Words   |  10 Pages Personal and/or religious experience is particularly revealing for developing a fuller understanding or ourselves and/God? (35) Examine and comment on this claim with reference to the topic you have investigated? (15) â€Å"There is no single thing that can be bottled and neatly labelled as a religious experience†-Harvey. A religious experience is an outward encounter with something divine also known as God. This experience is set apart from any other experience as it is based on religious contextRead MoreVictorian Novel9605 Words   |  39 Pagesprocess of producing novels. In contrast, Walter Besant stood for simplicity in the mentioned art that could not pass the clear vision of reality. However, the one who brought the genre into the following period was Stevenson. In his point of view the main aim for an author to achieve was to give pleasure without forgetting about artistic and moral values. In 1848, G.H.Lewes claimed that â€Å" Art always aims at the Representation of Reality, i.e. of Truth†. Realism was a centre of ‘Victorian novel’. TheRead MoreOrganisational Theory230255 Words   |  922 Pagesthis new text and I am sure my students will enjoy it, too. It combines rigorous theoretical argument with application and consideration of how managment practice is formed and shaped by ideas and concepts. The authors have brought their wealth of experience and understanding and provided the field with an imaginative resource to address the dynamics between theory and practice. Dr Susanne Tietze, Bradford University, UK The key to success for managers is not only to be result oriented but also to beRead MoreManagement Course: Mba−10 General Management215330 Words   |  862 Pagescompanies in the United States and throughout the world? How can companies renew and sustain those factors in the face of the business slowdowns and major fluctuations tha t challenge the longterm continuation of profitable earnings? As we continue to experience the twenty-first century’s economic, social, and political churning, how will these driving factors be influenced by the brutally competitive global economy in which organizations do not have any particular geographic identity or travel under anyRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words   |  1617 PagesANALYSIS 84 Cases Involving Self-Awareness 84 Communist Prison Camp 84 Computerized Exam 85 Decision Dilemmas 86 SKILL PRACTICE 89 Exercises for Improving Self-Awareness Through Self-Disclosure 89 Through the Looking Glass 89 Diagnosing Managerial Characteristics 90 An Exercise for Identifying Aspects of Personal Culture: A Learning Plan and Autobiography 92 SKILL APPLICATION 95 Activities for Developing Self-Awareness 95 Suggested Assignments 95 Application Plan and Evaluation 95 SCORING KEYS AND COMPARISONRead MoreHuman Resources Management150900 Words   |  604 Pagesthis aging issue means that HR professionals will continue to face significant staffing difficulties. Efforts to attract older workers through the use of part-time and flexible staffing will increase.7 Also, as more older workers with a lifetime of experience and skills retire, HR will face significant challenges in replacing them with workers having the capabilities and work ethic that characterize many older workers. For HR management, elder care will grow as a major HR issue. More workers will have

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay on Business Ethics - 753 Words

Sabeel Rehman Business Ethics 10/12/13 Case Study What are the ethical and legal issues at stake in this scenario? A: Karl has to deal with some ethical and possibly legal issues in the marketing of his game â€Å"Breakaway†. It is an issue ethically simply because he himself has to find out it is suitable to market a game that primarily gives its focus on nudity, violence, and gambling. When it comes to legal issues, is it legal to market these things in foreign countries and on the Internet? This is what he needs come to reality with and needs to think about. If they have the ability to market this game in other countries, then they would have to change different parts of the game for the countries that Will has looked into†¦show more content†¦I mean I know it would be my responsibility. But, there needs to be a limit. Gambling is apart of society in America. Any time there is an opening in a shopping plaza a gambling place opens up. To me that shouldn’t be the case, because then it can have a lot of people come in and, a lot of times lose money. It’s a good idea and a great way to generate revenue for the company itself, but bad for people who have a bad habit of gambling. Violence is getting worse as well. Today the world is turning into a monkey see monkey do society. There a lot of causes of this such as, video games being played, the things people see on TV or actually see in person. It’s actually getting more dangerous. With the media promoting more and more on what’s happening in violence. And no justice is being done about it; it’s letting the young youth have permission towards exactly what they’re doing. Which isn’t a good sign. Is marketing sex, violence, and gambling acceptable in other countries if these things do not conflict with local cultures? A: Unfortanently yes it is. For example look at the continent of Europe. The have a red light district system where it is legal to advertise sex in windows. There are streets alone that are dedicated to prostitutes legally if you are age. I don’t think gambling and violence is acceptable. Because they’re more strict and secure on that category. But I rather find it odd that there strict on those things but not nudity. I mean I have a feeling itShow MoreRelatedBusiness Ethics : Ethics And Business943 Words   |  4 Pagesdiscussions in Business is Ethics. Some people believe that the decisions businesses make in interest of the business has no place in ethics and that they are essentially amoral. These businesses believe that their main objective is to simply make a profit and that it does not affect the success of the business. Whereas some businesses believe that they have to take ethics into consideration, in order for their business to be a success. Richard T. De George (1999) states that ethics and business do notRead MoreThe Ethics Of Business Ethics1471 Words   |  6 PagesReview Nowadays, the concern for business ethics is growing rapidly in the business community around the world. Business ethics are focused on the judgment of decisions taken by managers and their behaviors. The issue regarding these judgments is the norms and cultures that shape these judgments. Business ethics are concerned about the issue, how will the issue be solved and how will it move ahead along the transition analysis as well (Carroll, 2014). Business ethics can be addressed at differentRead MoreEthics And Ethics Of Business Ethics1304 Words   |  6 PagesBusiness Ethics Varun Shah University of Texas at Dallas Business Ethics Morals are a crucial part of life. Without having principles one would never be able to distinguish the right from wrong and good from evil. Just as it applies to life in general, ethics is an integral part of doing business as well. 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However, business ethics can be defined as moral principles of a business. It examines moral or ethical problems that arise in a business environment. Generally, it has both normative and descriptive dimensions. Organization practice and career specialization are regarded as normative whereas academics attempting to understand business behaviourRead MoreThe Ethics Of Business Ethics757 Words   |  4 Pagesdeciding what to do in certain situations, ethics is what guides an individual to act in a way that is good, or right. Those involved in business settings apply ethics to business situations, known as business ethics. It is expected of businesses, small and large, to follow business ethics. There is a particular framework businesses are to follow. However, the reoccurring news headlines of poor business ethics prove differently. 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According to Chris MacDonald (2010)† Ethics† can be defined as the critical, structured examinations of how we should behave - in particular, how we should constrain the pursuit of self-interest when our actions affect others. â€Å"Business ethics is the applied ethics discipline that address the moral features of commercial activity (Business ethics, 2008).Working in ethical way in business has a lot of benefits which can attractRead MoreBusiness Ethics Essay944 Words   |  4 PagesUnderstanding Business Ethics Unit 37: National Diploma Assignment brief TASK 1: Scenario: Business ethics - a study of a selected company With growing interest among consumers regarding the business ethics of the businesses brands that consumers buy, Westminster council wants to conduct an independent review of some of the organisations that sell their goods and services in the borough. You have been asked to select one of the following brands and conduct research into their business ethics. 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According to Milton Friedman, a company has the responsibility to generate as much revenue as it can while still conforming to the basic rules that society has set. These rules include the ones embodied in customs as well as in law. Similarly, Peter Drucker stated that

Ronald Reagan †Psychological Eval Free Essays

He has been called the most significant President of the 20th century. Ronald Reagan’s devotion to the American people and his unwavering commitment to managing both domestic and foreign affairs with sincerity, composure and efficiency provided a beacon of hope in an era that was marked by economic turmoil on the homefront and an impending threat of nuclear war. An analysis of Reagan’s life history, from a psychological standpoint, seeks to reveal the significant factors and influential events that may shed light on how he acquired the distinctive characteristics and how the interplay of how these factors subsequently shaped the extraordinary person he became. We will write a custom essay sample on Ronald Reagan – Psychological Eval or any similar topic only for you Order Now It is necessary to consider the influence of heredity, certain family issues, social systems and environment on psychological development. Ronald Reagan was born on February 6, 1911 in the small midwestern town of Tampico, Illinois to Nell (mother) and Jack (father) and older brother Neil. Jack Reagan was a salesman, a staunch Irish- Catholic, a Democrat, despised bigotry and racial discrimination, supported blue collar workers and instilled in his sons the same values. Possibly more influential to Ronald’s psychological development was that his father was also an alcoholic (Gilbert, 2007). This was very difficult aspect of Reagan’s childhood and he struggled to cope with his reality and make sense of his father’s behavior. Ronald’s mother, Nelle was a very patient and nurturing woman who doted on her sons. She can be credited for familiarizing Ronald to theater and the stage by sharing with him her love of acting, as she was an actress herself. Being on stage and performing proved to be enjoyable for Ronald, so much so that he went on to star in various Hollywood movies. He even confessed that, â€Å"for a kid suffering childhood pangs of insecurity, the applause was music† (Will, 1990). She made a concerted effort to help them recognize that their fathers alcoholism, while upsetting and hard to understand, was a disease. Nelle was sympathetic in helping her sons deal with their father’s affliction and urged them not to blame their father for succumbing to the disease. She functioned as the constant source of unconditional loving care that seemed to lessen, though not completely diminish, the impact of Jack’s disease (Gilbert, 2007). She reminded her sons how evident their father’s love was when he was not drinking and helped them to maintain love and respect for their father in spite of his weakness. Nelle was a faithfully eligious woman and frequently made visits to families in need, the sick and went out of her way to lend a helping hand to anyone she was able help. Her generosity, kindness and unconditional love had a profound impact on her sons and masked some of the pain and disillusionment associated with their fathers’ alcoholism (Gilbert, 2007). For Reagan, growing up in an environment marked by the staggering paradox of his parents left an indelible impact on his life. His mother was the dependable parent who provided consistent love and guidance. In contrast, Jack Reagan’s alcoholism caused his sons considerable grief and confusion as to why he was unable to conquer his disease. Nelle Reagan wanted to protect her sons by rationalizing Jack’s behavior hoping they would not develop resentment towards their father. These efforts by Nelle, while well intentioned, served to create the illusion that the Reagan home environment was less dysfunctional than it truly was. According to Psychodynamic Theory, her behavior could be interpreted as reflective of an unconscious need to protect her children. Making a consistent effort to assure her sons that their father was the victim of a disease and powerless against his alcoholism could be classified as an illustration of both denial and rationalization. Denial is defined as, â€Å"the persons refusal to acknowledge external realities or emotions† (Kowalski and Westen, 2009). Rationalization can be identified as, â€Å"explaining away actions in a seemingly logical way to avoid uncomfortable feelings† (Kowalski and Westen, 2009). The Reagan family moved many times as a result of Jack’s inability to maintain work. This made it difficult for Ronald to build friendships which inevitably took a toll on his social skills as a boy and his ability to have meaningful relationships as an adult. As a child, Ronald Reagan was an introverted child with low self esteem (Gilbert, 2007). This is highly characteristic of children with alcoholic parents. Many individuals in Reagan’s close knit inner circle observed his reluctance, even inability, to sustain intimate and meaningful relationships with very many individuals. This is consistent to what research suggests about children who grow up in families in which at least one of the parents is an alcoholic. According to an article in the International Journal of Social Sciences and General Studies, â€Å"since the family is the context in which children usually learn to express their feelings, to love and express affection and to trust and share intimate aspects of their lives; it is understandable that many adult children of alcoholics have significant problems with psychosocial adjustment. They show extreme difficulty in sharing themselves in intimate ways with other people† (2010). It seems unlikely that Ronald Reagan, or any child who endures such unfortunate experiences, would ultimately be an actor or the president of the United States! However, the attention that Reagan sought was passive attention. He did not necessarily have to interact with audience members or constituents on a level that forced him to create any intimate, personal bond with these persons. Rather, he was able to operate from a secluded platform where he was able to control people’s perceptions of him. While he proved to be an effective leader and loved President, his childhood and subsequent development were certainly noticeable and undoubtedly affected how he operated as the leader of the free world. How to cite Ronald Reagan – Psychological Eval, Essay examples

Ronald Reagan †Psychological Eval Free Essays

He has been called the most significant President of the 20th century. Ronald Reagan’s devotion to the American people and his unwavering commitment to managing both domestic and foreign affairs with sincerity, composure and efficiency provided a beacon of hope in an era that was marked by economic turmoil on the homefront and an impending threat of nuclear war. An analysis of Reagan’s life history, from a psychological standpoint, seeks to reveal the significant factors and influential events that may shed light on how he acquired the distinctive characteristics and how the interplay of how these factors subsequently shaped the extraordinary person he became. We will write a custom essay sample on Ronald Reagan – Psychological Eval or any similar topic only for you Order Now It is necessary to consider the influence of heredity, certain family issues, social systems and environment on psychological development. Ronald Reagan was born on February 6, 1911 in the small midwestern town of Tampico, Illinois to Nell (mother) and Jack (father) and older brother Neil. Jack Reagan was a salesman, a staunch Irish- Catholic, a Democrat, despised bigotry and racial discrimination, supported blue collar workers and instilled in his sons the same values. Possibly more influential to Ronald’s psychological development was that his father was also an alcoholic (Gilbert, 2007). This was very difficult aspect of Reagan’s childhood and he struggled to cope with his reality and make sense of his father’s behavior. Ronald’s mother, Nelle was a very patient and nurturing woman who doted on her sons. She can be credited for familiarizing Ronald to theater and the stage by sharing with him her love of acting, as she was an actress herself. Being on stage and performing proved to be enjoyable for Ronald, so much so that he went on to star in various Hollywood movies. He even confessed that, â€Å"for a kid suffering childhood pangs of insecurity, the applause was music† (Will, 1990). She made a concerted effort to help them recognize that their fathers alcoholism, while upsetting and hard to understand, was a disease. Nelle was sympathetic in helping her sons deal with their father’s affliction and urged them not to blame their father for succumbing to the disease. She functioned as the constant source of unconditional loving care that seemed to lessen, though not completely diminish, the impact of Jack’s disease (Gilbert, 2007). She reminded her sons how evident their father’s love was when he was not drinking and helped them to maintain love and respect for their father in spite of his weakness. Nelle was a faithfully eligious woman and frequently made visits to families in need, the sick and went out of her way to lend a helping hand to anyone she was able help. Her generosity, kindness and unconditional love had a profound impact on her sons and masked some of the pain and disillusionment associated with their fathers’ alcoholism (Gilbert, 2007). For Reagan, growing up in an environment marked by the staggering paradox of his parents left an indelible impact on his life. His mother was the dependable parent who provided consistent love and guidance. In contrast, Jack Reagan’s alcoholism caused his sons considerable grief and confusion as to why he was unable to conquer his disease. Nelle Reagan wanted to protect her sons by rationalizing Jack’s behavior hoping they would not develop resentment towards their father. These efforts by Nelle, while well intentioned, served to create the illusion that the Reagan home environment was less dysfunctional than it truly was. According to Psychodynamic Theory, her behavior could be interpreted as reflective of an unconscious need to protect her children. Making a consistent effort to assure her sons that their father was the victim of a disease and powerless against his alcoholism could be classified as an illustration of both denial and rationalization. Denial is defined as, â€Å"the persons refusal to acknowledge external realities or emotions† (Kowalski and Westen, 2009). Rationalization can be identified as, â€Å"explaining away actions in a seemingly logical way to avoid uncomfortable feelings† (Kowalski and Westen, 2009). The Reagan family moved many times as a result of Jack’s inability to maintain work. This made it difficult for Ronald to build friendships which inevitably took a toll on his social skills as a boy and his ability to have meaningful relationships as an adult. As a child, Ronald Reagan was an introverted child with low self esteem (Gilbert, 2007). This is highly characteristic of children with alcoholic parents. Many individuals in Reagan’s close knit inner circle observed his reluctance, even inability, to sustain intimate and meaningful relationships with very many individuals. This is consistent to what research suggests about children who grow up in families in which at least one of the parents is an alcoholic. According to an article in the International Journal of Social Sciences and General Studies, â€Å"since the family is the context in which children usually learn to express their feelings, to love and express affection and to trust and share intimate aspects of their lives; it is understandable that many adult children of alcoholics have significant problems with psychosocial adjustment. They show extreme difficulty in sharing themselves in intimate ways with other people† (2010). It seems unlikely that Ronald Reagan, or any child who endures such unfortunate experiences, would ultimately be an actor or the president of the United States! However, the attention that Reagan sought was passive attention. He did not necessarily have to interact with audience members or constituents on a level that forced him to create any intimate, personal bond with these persons. Rather, he was able to operate from a secluded platform where he was able to control people’s perceptions of him. While he proved to be an effective leader and loved President, his childhood and subsequent development were certainly noticeable and undoubtedly affected how he operated as the leader of the free world. How to cite Ronald Reagan – Psychological Eval, Essay examples

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Unitarist and Pluralist Managerial Perspectives

Introduction People have different ways of interpreting the events they come across in their daily life. School and family circumstances, encounters at the workplaces, clubs, religions, friends, society, and occupations influence most of the interpretations. Employment is one of the elements that influence people’s life.Advertising We will write a custom case study sample on Unitarist and Pluralist Managerial Perspectives specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Hence, management and nature of employment are some of the issues that trigger heated debates. Most of these debates are based on principles and postulations that people use as reference points, a theoretical device first used by Alan Fox in 1974 as a way of explaining how people hold different opinions towards various issues. It is possible for two people to look at a common issue but interpret it in two different ways. People have two different perspectives of interpretin g managerial practices that take place at workplaces. The two perspectives are unitarist and pluralist perspectives. The unitarist perspective holds that workplace conflicts are avoidable. According to unitarists, managers may avoid workplace conflicts by bringing all the stakeholders together and making sure that an organisation is managed from a single source of power. On the other hand, pluralists hold that workplace conflicts are inevitable. According to pluralists, managers ought to convert the conflict into profitable initiative rather than criticising it. This paper aims at analysing the unitarist and pluralist managerial perspectives. Besides, the writer will decide on the best perspective based on the findings of the analysis. Unitarism Unitarists base their arguments on postulations that workplace conflict is an avoidable feature of relationships between employees and their managers. They claim that as long as managers continue interacting with employees, they are likely t o quarrel.Advertising Looking for case study on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to unitarists, both managers and employees share a common interest of making sure that their organisation grows steadily, and thus when a crisis occurs within the organisation, it would not lead to insolvency of the organisation (Ross Bamber 2009). Hence, the conflict that emerges between the parties is a result of personality muddle, poor communication, poor promotion practices, or inappropriate recruitment. Unitarists hold that to avoid such conflicts, the management team ought to identify the actions that might lead to conflicts and avoid implementing them. The management has the duty to conduct a free and fair promotion and recruitment exercise, come up with quality communication systems that are capable of showing the employees where their interests fall, and deal with people susceptible to personality disorders (Bacon Blyton 2007). Unitarists position on employee management draws from a number of theories. One of the theories is the theory of scientific management devised by Taylor (Ross Bamber 2009). The theory holds that for managers to come up with productive employee management strategies, they have to start by assuming that the employees are likely to avoid work whenever they get a chance, they have limited knowledge about the work, and are prone to pursuing personal interests. Therefore, to address these problems, the managers ought to come up with rigid and direct mechanisms that would help to control all the activities the employees undertake. The management has the duty to portray rational leadership during the recruitment process and when instructing employees. According to the unitarists, organisations ought to have a single source of authority. All instructions ought to come from the management team (Ross Bamber 2009). Managers are supposed to treat employees in a manner th at tries to suppress internal conflict over power by ensuring that it does not allocate powers to individual employees.Advertising We will write a custom case study sample on Unitarist and Pluralist Managerial Perspectives specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Another theory from which unitarists draw their position regarding employee management is the human relations theory. They believe that for an organisation to curb organisational tension, it has to make sure that it establishes a working environment that promotes self-fulfilment. Workers are qualitatively different from all other elements of production (Ross Bamber 2009). Therefore, whenever workers are deprived the opportunity to make decisions in the organisation, the unitarists believe that they will definitely look for ways to resist the management system that enforces these conditions. Organisations need to handle their employees with great care since they are the most cri tical resource in production. The management has the duty to design workplace relations in ways that promote self-satisfaction within the employees. The managers need to understand that the employees have the right to present their opinions on how they would like to be governed (Bacon Blyton 2007). Moreover, they are required to work on employee development as a way to show that they are committed to improving the wellbeing of all employees. In whichever way, the ultimate goal of this managerial approach is to curb internal conflicts by promoting self-satisfaction through involving the employees in running the organisation. Unitarists do not believe in the role of trade unions in the organisations (Dzimbiri 2008). According to them, trade unions are illegal interruptions to management objectives. Trade unions tend to neutralise the power of organisational leaders in making all the crucial decisions in an organisation. They champion for the employees’ interests and makes sure that leaders address the interests. In a way, there appears to be a second source of authority within an organisation.Advertising Looking for case study on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Unitarists believe that this second source of authority, which is the trade union, is to blame for tension that arises between employees and managers. They make it hard for an organisation to solve internal differences harmoniously. Apart from the scientific management and the human relations theories, the Unitarists draw their inspirations from the human resource management theory. The management theory holds that, for an organisation to surmount tension it has to foster a psychological contract rooted on cooperation. Unitarists believe that the forces that bring together the managers and the employees are much stronger than the forces that draw them apart (Ross Bamber 2009). Hence, the management ought to work on the forces that unite it with the employees by establishing a working environment that promotes autonomy. The management needs to treat the issue of workplace relations as a hole. In a bid to encourage cooperation between the management and employees, the management need s to create a corporate culture that brings parties together, use an insidious and strong leadership style, and have a clear revelation of the organisational goals. Workplace social classes are a major hindrance to organisational success. They lead to the breakdown of communication across the different departments. Besides, the social classes lead to regular conflicts due to contradicting interests (Bacon Blyton 2007). Unitarists maintain that for an organisation to succeed, it has to have a management system that discourages establishment of social classes, establishes open communication, and champions for the interests of all parties to the organisation. Such a system is achievable by encouraging teamwork within the organisation. Teamwork promotes cooperation between employees, therefore, avoiding chances of conflict of interest. Besides teamwork, conducting employee performance appraisal would go a long way to encourage cooperation between employees. Pluralism Pluralists hold th at conflicts at workplaces are inevitable, which contradicts the unitarists’ position who believes that it is possible for institutions to circumvent conflict at workplaces. Pluralists perceive business organisations as intricate social constructions that comprise of groups of people with conflicting interests. Employees and the management form part of these groups (Giles 1998). Based on the nature of the organisation’s system, employees and management are seen to pledge to different objectives and values. Based on this perspective, pluralists believe that it is hard to do away with different sources of power within a business institution. For this reason, organisations cannot overcome conflicts. By acknowledging that organisations are incapable of overcoming conflicts, the pluralists consider conflict to be of significant benefit to an organisation (Giles 1998). It acts as the conduit through which employees present their problems. Moreover, they posit that whenever t he management senses that conflict might erupt in an organisation, they work towards coming up with innovative methods that would turn the conflict into a productive initiative. Pluralists assert that learning that trade unions and shop stewards are likely to cause trouble in an organisation leaves the management at a better position to address the issues of employee relations in a holistic manner. Incidentally, workplace conflict does not only help the management to come up with strategies for institutionalising employment regulations but to also promote a level ground for all parties since employees are able to stand their ground when negotiating on contract terms (Bacon Storey 2000). This assertion underlines the reason why pluralists advocate for trade unions to act on behalf of the employees when bargaining for stable working conditions. Pluralists draw their inspirations from the systems theory devised by Dunlop in 1958. The theory treats industrial relations as constituents of a wider social system (Kessler Purcell 2003). They believe that for an organisation to succeed there has to be numerous leaders or lines of command to make sure that one leader does not pursue personal interests at the expense of others. Unlike the unitarists who do not see the role of trade unions in organisations, pluralists believe that trade unions play a significant role in bringing sanity into an organisation. According to pluralists, organisations are more susceptible to conflicts than harmony. Hence, it is illogical to claim that trade unions are the root cause of conflict witnessed in organisations (Kessler Purcell 2003). The pluralist theory holds that the workplaces are made up of different sets of attitudes, values, behaviours, and beliefs. Hence, it is hard for any organisation to bring all the stakeholders together and share common interests and values (Kessler Purcell 2003). For the management to bring the employees together, it requires to go through the heavy task of convincing them on the need for coming together. Since the different employees have different interests, the management ought not to run away from conflicts. Instead, it needs to embrace workplace conflicts and look for ways to turn the conflicts into productive undertakings. Pluralists call upon the management to institute industrial relations and select skilled personnel to advice it on how to address industrial matters, rather than intimidating the trade union’s personnel. Pluralists maintain that the management has the duty to promote pluralism and give all parties in the organisation an opportunity to participate in making decisions on matters affecting the organisation (Ackers 2002). In a bid to achieve this goal, managers ought to understand that employees are not the cause of conflict witnessed in organisations, but they show the diversity in industrial relations. Therefore, to harness this diversity and use it productively, managers need to embrace conflictin g opinions. The opinions might be rich in novel operation methods, therefore, helping the organisation to grow its performance. A pluralistic managerial perspective occasionally embraces a balancing archetype. Pluralists view business organisations as plural societies that hold numerous related but separate goals and interests, which the managers ought to establish some form of equilibrium to maintain them. In case one of the interests dominates the others, an organisation is likely to face a crisis (Ackers 2002). Pluralists emphasise on the need for striking an even-handed balance between the different interests in a business organisation to circumvent negative results. Overlooking some interests and addressing others might lead to the demoralisation of employees whose interests are overlooked. Such employees would stop being productive subjecting the organisation to retarded growth (Ackers 2002). In a bid to ensure that all employees commit themselves to organisational goal, plura lists claim that management and employees need to compromise on some of their interests to reach a common ground where they would be able to work on the interests that are feasible and within the organisation’s budget. According to the pluralist managerial perspective, the management can and should play a central role in coming up with minimum standards and designing other policies to rectify the imbalance in the bargaining power and foster equity. Employment is not enough (Singh Loncar 2010). Managers ought to ensure that employees enjoy quality working conditions and employment security. Besides, pluralists maintain that the management needs to address both work and non-work related needs of their employees. It needs to give employees the power to make decisions at their workplaces, which would facilitate in avoiding conflicts, as employees would agree with their colleagues on policies to adopt. The pluralistic approach does not view the role of managers as to implement or ganisational policies. Instead, it views managers as the link between the organisation and the employees (Singh Loncar 2010). Rather than imposing policies on employees, managers are supposed to help in reconciling the competing parties within an organisation. Besides, they are supposed to help in aligning the employee interests with the organisational goals. The best perspective The assumption that workplace conflict is avoidable, as the unitarists believe is not true. Unitarists teach that organisations need to have a common interest and a single focus of loyalty. Nevertheless, this scenario is not the reality in many organisations. Different employees and organisational leaders hold different opinions and have competing interests (Gennard Judge 2002). Consequently, it is hard for any organisation to circumvent workplace conflicts. Since it is hard for organisational leaders to do away with competition within the organisation, they need to look for ways of exploiting the competi tion in a profitable way. The pluralist managerial perspective offers the best solution for dealing with contemporary organisations. In the modern organisations, the workforce comprises of people with different cultural backgrounds. This diversity makes it hard for employees to share common interests. In a bid to achieve organisational growth, the management has to have knowledge on how to motivate the diverse workforce. Besides, it has to have clear knowledge of the diverse interests held by the workforce and work on modalities to harmonise them. Unitarists claim that trade unions are the main cause of conflict in organisations and that to avoid conflicts; organisations need to eliminate trade unions. However, trade unions are not accountable for workplace conflicts. Actually, conflict is endemic within the workplaces. Most of the modern organisations do not have trade unions (Abbott 2006). Nonetheless, the organisations still witness workplace conflicts between the different group s of employees or within the management team. The managers ought to go by the saying â€Å"if you cannot beat them, join them†. Rather than trying to curb workplace conflict, which is hard to do away with, organisational leaders ought to bring back sanity by sharing the control of the organisation. Unitarists believe that using a single source of power might help to curb conflict, which may apply for small institutions (Abbott 2006). However, for bigger organisations, it is hard for the management team to use a single source of power, which underlines why organisations are working to remove the hierarchy that exists in their administration structure. The hierarchy not only leads to conflict, but also delays in the implementation of organisational policies. Therefore, pluralists offer the best solution to workplace conflicts, which is to share control of organisation between several leaders who would work on the various interests to reach at a common agreement with all the sta keholders. A single leader cannot manage to address all the employee demands and might end up enforcing his or her ideas, therefore, amplifying the conflict (Abbott 2006). The employer-employee relations can be said to have two crucial but different features. These features are the managerial relations and the market relations. The market relations entail the terms and conditions of employee recruitment and are economic in nature. The managerial relations are the most crucial in an organisation as they determine its success. One of the aspects of managerial relations is the collective bargaining (Bacon Blyton 2007). This aspect relates with the argument about the importance of trade unions in organisations. Organisations do not have time to get the opinion of every employee. Hence, trade unions would facilitate to gather the opinion of the employees and bring them on the table for the organisation to make decisive decisions. The pluralist managerial perspective advocates for collec tive bargaining, which is a valuable approach in organisation management. Collective bargaining offers a platform where all parties participate in a democratic decision-making process. In return, it motivates employees since they feel empowered (Bacon Blyton 2007). Contemporarily, employee empowerment is one of the strategies used in unleashing the employees’ potential. In an environment where employees have to wait for commands from their leaders (like the one unitarists advocate for), they get demoralised and fail to commit themselves (Schmidt 2009). In such an instance, employees only work because they need money and they leave the organisation upon getting the first chance. The pluralist managerial perspective promotes a working environment that empowers employees giving them a chance to make decisions on matters affecting their organisation. This aspect arouses the feeling of co-ownership of the organisation in employees, and thus they commit to enhancing its growth. An organisation that use pluralist managerial approach is likely to cut down on operations cost with respect to employee turnover (Schmidt 2009). Since the approach empowers the employees, they feel comfortable and they commit themselves to organisational goals. Workplace conflict, if managed effectively, would promote innovativeness in an organisation, which underlines the reason why pluralists advocate for the management to manage the conflict but not rebuke and criticise it. In case of workplace conflict, bringing together all the stakeholders would help an organisation identify the underlying challenges and tensions. In return, the management would be able to come up with measures to mitigate their potential effects or address them before they happen (Bacon Blyton 2007). In a unitarist managerial approach, the management would be caught unprepared by challenges posed by workplace conflict. The approach believes that it is possible to do away with workplace conflicts. However, the strategies it gives appear more intimidating to employees. Therefore, instead of solving the conflicts, the strategies postpone them only to erupt at a time when the organisation is not prepared. On the other hand, the pluralist perspective employs conflict management strategies to address the challenges a conflict poses. It brings together all the parties involved in the conflict and helps them to come up with a consensus (Kessler Purcell 2003). For the modern organisations to prosper, they need to exploit the skills their diverse workforce possesses. Currently, organisations employ people with diverse cultural backgrounds. If these diverse cultures are brought together, they might help an organisation to come up with quality managerial practices, which can be achieved if an organisation accepts to accommodate a wide range of employee relations policies (Gennard Judge 2002). A Unitarist managerial perspective would not accommodate a range of policies since the system advocate fo r a single source of power. Embracing numerous policies would imply having numerous sources of power or a wide range of options to select from, which might lead to conflicts. Conversely, the pluralist managerial approach would accommodate for a range of employee relations policies. The approach acknowledges the potential benefits of workplace conflicts. Therefore, it would not mind to embrace the numerous policies even though they might lead to conflict within the diverse workforce. By bringing together the diverse experiences, an organisation would have a better chance of incorporating novel functions in its management practice thus improving its performance. Integrating the sentiments of every employee into the organisational goals would go a long way to curb workplace conflicts. This aspect underlines why the unitarist managerial perspective calls for common interests among the employees. Nevertheless, the perspective does not advice on how managers can come up with mutual intere sts or how to share mutual interests across the business institution. Storey (2000) posits, â€Å"Unitarism does not provide any guidelines for human resource, so that it can pursue unitarism effectively† (p.12). Individuals supporting unitarism perspective assume that employees are mature enough to reach conclusive decisions on how to integrate organisational and personal interests. This assumption makes the perspective weak, since it is hard for individuals with differing opinions to come up with an agreement without following a particular guideline. The pluralist perspective understands this aspect and that is why it advocates for collective bargaining as the alternative method to help in bringing the personal and organisational interests together. Unitarist managerial perspective holds that workplace conflicts are avoidable. Nevertheless, the unitarists fail to understand that employers are the root cause of the conflict. The unitarists advocate for employers to have abso lute powers in running the organisation. They do not realise that by granting the employers absolute powers, they exert unnecessary pressure on employees, which triggers the conflict. Instead of employees participating in the decision-making process, the employers force them to embrace the decisions made by the management even if they affect their rights and interests. In the end, the employees end up resisting the decisions leading to conflicts. For the organisation to curb conflicts, it has to ensure that all stakeholders take part in the decision-making process. Hence, only the pluralist managerial perspective can address workplace conflict, which is an inevitable phenomenon. Conclusion Managers follow different reference points when executing their management exercises. Two of such reference points are the unitarist and the pluralist managerial perspectives. The two perspectives have different opinions regarding organisational management. Unitarist holds that workplace conflict is avoidable. Therefore, the unitarist perspective calls for the establishment of a single source of power and integration of organisational and employee interests. They believe that workplace conflicts come because of different employee interests. Moreover, unitarists believe that employees do not need having trade unions, as the unions add to workplace conflicts. On the other hand, pluralist managerial perspective holds that workplace conflicts are inevitable. According to pluralists, it is hard for organisations to curb workplace conflicts. Therefore, the organisational management team needs to look for the opportunities that might help it to use the emerging conflicts to boost organisational growth. Pluralists view workplace conflicts in a positive dimension. They believe that the conflicts help the management to unravel the underlying tensions, therefore, helping them to come up with measures to mitigate them. Between the two perspectives, pluralist managerial perspective is th e better. The perspective acknowledges that it is hard for an organisation to overcome workplace conflicts and it gives a method of embracing the conflict in a productive way. Reference List Abbott, K 2006, ‘A review of employment relations theories and their application’,  Problems and Perspectives in Management, vol. 1 no.1, pp. 187-198. Ackers, P 2002, ‘Reframing Employment Relations: The case for neo-pluralism’,  Industrial Relations Journal, vol. 33 no. 1, pp. 2–19. Bacon, N Blyton, P 2007, ‘Conflict for Mutual Gains?’ Journal of Management  Studies, vol. 44 no. 5, pp. 814-834. Bacon, N Storey, J 2000, ‘New employee relations strategies in Britain: Towards individualism or partnership?’ British Journal of Industrial Relations, vol. 38 no. 3, pp. 407-428. Dzimbiri, L 2008, Industrial relations in a developing society: The case of colonial,  independent one-party and multiparty Malawi, Cuvillier Verlag, Germany. Gennard, J Judge, G 2002, Employee Relations, 3rd edn, Institute of Personnel and Development, Wimbledon. Giles, A 1998, Theories and concepts in comparative industrial relations, University of South Carolina Press, South Carolina. Kessler, I Purcell, J 2003, Industrial Relations: Theory And Practice, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford. Ross, P Bamber, G 2009, ‘Strategic choices in pluralist and unitarist employment relations regimes: A study of Australian telecommunications’, Industrial Labour  Relations Review, vol. 63 no. 1, pp. 24-41. Schmidt, S 2009, ‘Employee demographics and job training satisfaction: The relationship between dimensions of diversity and satisfaction with job training’,  Human Resource Development International, vol. 12 no. 3, pp. 297-312. Singh, P Loncar, N 2010, ‘Pay satisfaction, job satisfaction, and turnover intent’,  Industrial Relations, vol. 65 no. 3, pp. 470-490. Storey, J 2000, The Realities of Human Resou rce Management: Managing The  Employment Relationship, Open University Press, Buckingham. This case study on Unitarist and Pluralist Managerial Perspectives was written and submitted by user Aubrianna Mccarthy to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Essay on Graffiti Art

Essay on Graffiti Art Essay on Graffiti Art Los Angeles is the most densely inhabited city in the state of California, and stands in second place after New York City, as the most populous in America. Most people in the city socialize mostly through cultural traditions and arts that are mainly practiced in the area. These arts form the basis of communication and expressions whether political or social. That being a few of the forms of expression graffiti is being widely used in the city. This form of art is employed as a means of social and political expression. The reason as to why young people use this form of avenue is that it is quite public and will relay the message. The fact that they are not provided with platforms to express themselves is another key issue to be addressed. In this paper, discussion on ways through which this work of art expresses the social and political issues in relation to Los Angeles will follow suit. The city holds a history rich of arts and culture that has attracted millions of tourists from all over the world many years ago. In fact, the city’s greater area represents the most important site for television and movie production in the whole of the U.S. Other works of art related to Los Angeles include literature, music, museums, architecture, paintings, and street art, just to mention a few. Wordings; Graffiti artists use certain terms like crews, bombing, taggers these form a characteristic of graffiti traditions, although significantly, this type of dialect is to the idea that the whole culture is associated to the wider American customs that we are a components. Culture and language cannot be separated; culture creates language and the language creates culture. This distinct language is a preserve for graffiti tradition members and can be learnt through participation or continuous exposure to tag culture. This tag language is one form that graffiti is used to express social issues. The present graffiti words are obtained from the daily social life, the comments, phallic symbols, the jokes. Such graffiti is written in a common language so that individuals can comprehend, in addition to, partake in its humor or react in kind (Phillips, 47). The second category is images; in the context of community-based graffiti; these graffiti look like vivacious characters and vibrant texts. They have an origin in hip-hop culture and were selected because of its ability to both isolate, and form an interconnected faction that replicate current social issues in Los Angeles. It reflects a culture that is emerging in the society; it is ingrained in clothes, music, and dialect. The style was a preferred method, and individuals who create these images were part of the society that is influenced by the occurrence of these descriptions. Graffiti carried out by Gang is the type that is emphasizes a lot of the communal identification that this expressive means may value . However, the power that this illustrations yield, is usually disregarded. Graffiti expressing political notions is founded in interior representation by which negative political thoughts are channeled. These types of graffiti are mostly employed through activism movements in times of political protests; they have the ability to induce an emotional response, whether good or bad from their targeted audience. Objects, images and social conducts that contain a common implication among communities stand to unite the people. Under graffiti, the art has stood as a representation of opposition and a common dissatisfaction with current social certainty. Ancient graffiti expressed love affirmations, social opinions and simple terminology of the notion in comparison to current popular information of societal and political standards as seen in the streets of Los Angeles (Phillips, 46). This is the same as in today’s world. Graffiti has been commercialized and is gaining popularity while others are seeking its legitimization. In 2001, IBM a large computer firm instigated a movement in Chicago, and San Francisco, which was advertising peace the campaign primarily, involved the community spray work of art on pavements the given symbols to illustrate Peace, Love, and Linux. However, because of the law which states that graffiti art is illegal the act saw the artists detained and prosecuted with damage charges, in addition to the repair costs, and penalty measures, IBM Company was fined more than US$120,000. In Los Angeles, Sony instigated same advertising campaign in 2005 and other cities, but this time taking into consideration the legal challenges of the IBM campaign. Sony compensated proprietors for the privileges to paint on their properties; portraits of dizzy-eyed city kids gathering, who were imitating a skateboard, a paddle or a rocking horse using PSP gadget. The two campaigns are an expression of an application of graffiti as a means in passing information, which the society does not approve to some extent. The war is clearly illustrated in Los Angeles, where two people were shot dead by the graffiti artist when they tried to stop them from doing what they love best. . Another social aspect is the growth of computer gaming depicting the art largely. These is to the positive aspect of the art, for example, the jet set radio program (2000–2003) shows the story of an assembly of youths fighting the subjugation of an authoritarian police that seeks to hinder the graffiti artists’ liberty of expression. Frequently, graffiti is reputed as an element of a culture that seeks to rebel against au thority and laws in general as seen in the state where a certain group brands themselves and seek to warn visitors of their presence. What in my perspective makes the art wrong is the fact that most vandals are young people, ranging from young school going to youths, who vandalize public spaces for invalid reasons such as boredom, anger or revenge. For successful artists, ideas that perform this art often diverge and can illustrate a wide array of approaches and perceptions. Most artist use materials such as paints and sprays, these sprays have a negative effect on the surroundings because of the fact that it contains. Harmful chemical elements like chlorofluorocarbons or volatile hydrocarbon gases are contained in the paints used for graffiti in painting a surface. These are harmful to the environment, and will continue to worsen the global warming situation in the world. Alternatively, moss graffiti can be adopted which will use moss, which is more environmental friendly to create the images or the wordings. The mixture is prepared through gluing moss unto a plane by mixing beer milk or yoghurt to serve as an adhesive for the art. These efforts of making the situation more environment friendly does not justify the fact that each year, in the clean up exercise of graffiti, large amounts are accounted for. The society can approve a policy less lenient for destruction and instead provide an avenue or a place designed specifically for these artists to express themselves. Arresting them will only make the condition worse and they will continue to spend cleaning up the streets. On the other hand, with the already tarnished streets, what the locals need to do is first; to identify objects and locations prone to graffiti, and educate property owners effective and efficient of cleaning the places. Participants in these forums will mostly include property owners affected by graffiti, recreational facilities public works, shopping malls, schools, government, businesses, and other institutions. This will resolve the crisis in the short period; in the end, they can construct their buildings with hard to write on bricks or plant shrubs and hedges. Improved lighting and cooperation of the community and the authority will solve their so-called problem. Looking at an artist’s perspective bring us to understand why they are so passionate about the art. Certain anthropologists explain that the art is an expression of one’s ideas and ideals. It goes beyond just the images and is mostly a representation of political ideas, race and art. This passion goes beyond fear of being caught, which has made a blog that highlights these paintings as being top five most viewed sights. I must say that these pieces of art is quite eye-catching and has its own beauty. The artists also are said to have a distinction between street art and graffiti basing the difference in that the artist signs graffiti while the street art is simply a form of expression, which is often done randomly. These facts also lead us to asking the question is the form of art an unnecessary struggle. I believe when one wants to pursue something he should go for it. Being a true believer means one is not swayed by the changing world, but one should also consider doi ng it peacefully. Overall, the art can signify liberation, love or territory. What the artist need is to make the community understand from their point of view. Successful artists in this field have received awards to prove that the entire art is not a negative vice and can be displayed in museums. In other words, it can be a visual method of communication with these it would play as both an art and a mode of communication to the users. Being an old form of art goes to show it has its form of justification and is not all negative (Ganz, and Tristan, 98). A closer insight to the teenagers responsible for this form of art these explain that graffiti delineates the effect neighborhood, politics, and culture that is the society in general have on the day today activities of these teenagers. Most outstanding thing of this insight being the spirit, pride and allegiance that are expressed through in the voices of the said teenagers. This is not a glorification or the justification of gang behavior, but we rather perceive it as an objective that focuses on a specific social group that is not readily featured in the mainstream media and is trying to reach out. Gangs are not prevalent in many communities; my hope is that concerned parties would be enlightened, through various channels to be able to communicate with this group of a generation that is in need of help.

Monday, March 2, 2020

Why Use Endnotes, Endnotes vs. Footnotes

Why Use Endnotes, Endnotes vs. Footnotes Even though parenthetical style citations have become popular in modern academia, there are plenty of times when they are not quite appropriate. You might find that you are dealing with an old-school editor who requires the use of endnotes. In fact, for many manuscript publications, endnotes are the preferred method of citation. Why Use Endnotes? Endnotes are a wonderful solution to the break in flow that citations can sometimes create. When you use them, you can be sure that your text will not be interrupted by more than a single superscript number. The reader can then turn to the back of the book or paper to read the entire citation, if they so choose. Much of the reason that we use any type of citationwhether an APA style citation or Chicago Style citationis to provide healthy proof for our claims. We want to make sure that we can write with authority, and provide backing for the theoretical points we make. We also want to be sure that we can properly utilize the works of those who have gone before us. Endnotes vs. Footnotes Because of this, few readers are interested in reading footnotes at the end of each page. In fact, many readers find it distracting, and will only desire footnotes for further investigation on the topic at hand. Because of this, endnotes have remained a quite popular reference solution in the publication realms.